T.F.H. Publications, Inc., is a subsidiary of Central Garden & PetCompany, which includes its flagship Tropical Fish Hobbyist magazine-- the industry's leading aquarium fish magazine for more than a halfcentury -- and Nylabone Products, the leader in responsible animalcare for over 50 years.
Male bettas are placed into small, individual bags for shipping, with just enough water to keep them submerged. Ninety percent of the bag's volume is reserved for air to allow the betta enough oxygen to breath during shipment. An estimated 100,000 plus male bettas are shipped weekly via air freight, primarily from Thailand, with destinations throughout the globe. Air freight is priced on the weight of each box, so keeping the water volume to a minimum is essential to supplying hobbyists with an affordable fish. Once received by the importer, male bettas are placed in new bags or small containers with clean water to temporarily hold them before they are distributed to retailers. Data from a major wholesaler in Florida shows less than 2% mortality for imported bettas during shipment, and less than 0.5% mortality to the retail market. At the retail level, male bettas are typically kept in small plastic cups either on a shelf or floating in aquariums. As discussed, bettas have evolved to survive in conditions similar to their shipping and holding environments.
The betta is one of the most popular and important freshwater aquarium species worldwide. It has an ancient history of production and use in Southeast Asia and is of considerable cultural significance. The fascinating evolutionary history of this species led to air-breathing and a robust physiology that allowed it to occupy shallow, warmer, low-oxygen environments and thrive where many other fishes could not survive. These natural adaptations make the betta highly suited to mass aquaculture production, especially grow-out in small, individual containers where many fish can be raised in a small \"footprint.\" These adaptations also allow efficient and inexpensive global shipping from the main production centers in Southeast Asia to markets in the United States, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. Wholesalers and retailers hold the males in an efficient and appropriate manner by using small containers while simultaneously managing water quality and fish health. Further, bettas can be maintained in a healthy, appropriate manner by aquarium hobbyists using small aquaria or fish bowls by likewise using good husbandry practices to maintain water quality and fish health. The evolutionary development, natural history, and domestication of this species makes it highly adapted to the common culture, shipping, and husbandry practices exhibited in today's global trade of bettas.
The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as the numbers of animals did not grow too large. The aquarium craze was launched in early Victorian England by Gosse, who created and stocked the first public aquarium at the London Zoo in 1853, and published the first manual, The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea in 1854. Small aquariums are kept in the home by hobbyists. There are large public aquariums in many cities. Public aquariums keep fish and other aquatic animals in large tanks. A large aquarium may have otters, turtles, dolphins, sharks, penguins, seals, and whales. Most aquarium tanks also have plants.
In 1832, Jeanne Villepreux-Power, a pioneering French marine biologist, became the first person to create aquaria for experimenting with aquatic organisms. In 1836, soon after his invention of the Wardian case, Dr. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward proposed to use his tanks for tropical animals. In 1841 he did so, though only with aquatic plants and toy fish. However, he soon housed real animals. In 1838, Félix Dujardin noted owning a saltwater aquarium, though he did not use the term. In 1846, Anne Thynne maintained stony corals and seaweed for almost three years, and was credited as the creator of the first balanced marine aquarium in London. English chemist Robert Warington experimented with a 13-gallon container, which contained goldfish, eelgrass, and snails, creating one of the first stable aquaria. The aquarium principle was fully developed by Warington, explaining that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large. He published his findings in 1850 in the Chemical Society's journal.
Aquaria became more widely popular as houses had an electricity supply after World War I. Electricity allowed artificial lighting, as well as aeration, filtration, and heating of the water. Initially, amateur aquarists kept native fish (with the exception of goldfish); the availability of exotic species from overseas further increased the popularity of the aquarium. Jugs made from a variety of materials were used to import fish from overseas, with a bicycle foot pump for aeration. Plastic shipping bags were introduced in the 1950s, making it easier to ship fish. The eventual availability of air freight allowed fish to be successfully imported from distant regions. Popular publications started by Herbert R. Axelrod influenced many more hobbyists to start keeping fish. In the 1960s, metal frames made marine aquaria almost impossible due to corrosion, but the development of tar and silicone sealant allowed the first all-glass aquaria made by Martin Horowitz in Los Angeles, CA. The frames remained, however, though purely for aesthetic reasons.
The typical hobbyist aquarium includes a filtration system, an artificial lighting system, an air diffuser and pump, and a heater or chiller depending on the aquarium's inhabitants. Many aquaria incorporate a hood, containing the lights, to decrease evaporation and prevent fish from leaving the aquarium (and anything else from entering the aquarium).
Large volumes of water enable more stability in a tank by diluting effects from death or contamination events that push an aquarium away from equilibrium. The bigger the tank, the easier such a systemic shock is to absorb, because the effects of that event are diluted. For example, the death of the only fish in an 11-litre (3 US gal; 2 imp gal) tank causes dramatic changes in the system, while the death of that same fish in a 400-litre (110 US gal; 88 imp gal) tank with many other fish in it represents only a minor change. For this reason, hobbyists often favor larger tanks, as they require less attention.
Water temperature determines the two most basic aquarium classifications: tropical versus cold water. Most fish and plant species tolerate only a limited temperature range; tropical aquaria, with an average temperature of about 25 C (77 F), are much more common. Temperate or coldwater aquaria are for fish that are better suited to a cooler environment. Temperature consistency is more important than range. Most organisms are not accustomed to sudden changes in temperatures, which can cause shock and lead to disease. Water temperature can be regulated with a thermostat and heater (or cooler).
Another classification is by temperature range. Many aquarists choose a tropical aquarium because tropical fish tend to be more colorful. However, the coldwater aquarium is also popular, which includes fish from temperate areas worldwide.
The number of each type of fish can usually be selected, often including other animals like starfish, jellyfish, seahorses, and even sea turtles. Most companies that produce virtual aquarium software also offer other types of fish for sale via Internet download. Other objects found in an aquarium can also be added and rearranged on some software, like treasure chests and giant clams that open and close with air bubbles, or a bobbing diver. There are also usually features that allow the user to tap on the glass or put food in the top, both of which the fish will react to. Some also have the ability to allow the user to edit fish and other objects to create new varieties.
Champaign Area Fish Enthusiasts (CAFE), formerly known as Champaign Area Fish Exchange, is nonprofit organization in East Central Illinois based out of the Urbana/Champaign area for aquarium hobbyists interested in tropical fish, natives, marine/reef, planted tanks, ponds and all aquatic life to interact and share knowledge. We hold monthly meetings as well as 2 auctions per year. Monthly meetings have resumed.
Archival (data-storage) and telemetry (acoustic and radio) tags are commonly used to provide data on the behavior and physiology of organisms, as well as data on their surrounding environment. For fishes, it is often advantageous to implant tags in the peritoneal cavity (i.e., intracoelomic implantation). The literature on best practices is limited for marine species, and near absent for tunas despite their regular application. We identify recommended practices using laparotomy in tropical tuna species following observations from thousands of tags implantations undertaken during implementation of several tagging programs across the Pacific. These recommended practices include descriptions of preferred tagging stations and equipment, fish selection, surgical procedures, and return of the fish to the wild. While these recommended practices were developed specifically for tropical tuna species, they are also likely applicable for other pelagic fishes. We present these guidelines to guide and promote the development of best practices for such procedures on pelagic species. 153554b96e