Letter From The Editor-in-Chief
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In the past 10 years, Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica has evolvedto become a frequently-cited journal, and it recently received an impactfactor that reflects the dedication and expertise of our editors andreviewers. As you may know, the Journal Citation Reports for 2010have been recently released and the Journal was given an Impact Factorof 0.427. I offer my thanks to both readers and authors, who havehelped us by citing articles from our journal. To improve this result, wehope to receive high quality manuscripts from Italian and internationalauthors.
Now that we've begun to change, we will also hope to continue to evolve and have good idea on how to proceed. Inguiding the editorial team in the choices we have to make, we ask our readers to help us to explore new ways to makethe journal useful: please share your ideas and thoughts with us. We can be reached at ti.ttacinu.mr@lroacilatiatca. We look forward to hearing from you soon.
Spillovers (or externalities) are impacts on third parties not directly involved in an economic transaction, that is, when a transaction between A and B affects C (Pigou, 1920). In such cases, the parties to the transaction (firms, consumers or factor owners) either do not bear all of the costs or do not reap all of the benefits from the transaction. Positive (social benefits exceed private benefits) or negative (social costs exceed private costs) spillovers are created. The existence of spillovers, however, is not always a matter for concern. Externalities can be divided into two groups, pecuniary and non-pecuniary; only non-pecuniary spillovers cause misallocation of resources (Scitovsky, 1954).
Although vertical linkages generate primarily pecuniary spillovers, they often also create technological spillovers as a byproduct. For example, buyer-supplier linkages involving an MNE can facilitate learning-by-doing by local firms, raising their productivity. MNE training of host country employees provides a more highly skilled and productive labor pool and a potential source of new start-up firms, creating external benefits for upstream and downstream firms. All of these activities generate informal, unintended, non-market transfers. Because vertical linkages can create both pecuniary and technological spillovers, they are often difficult to disentangle. From the perspective of FDI, the key to technological spillovers is that there are residual impacts from FDI that accrue to local firms and organizations for which the foreign entrants are uncompensated. These residual impacts are expected to raise the overall level of productivity at the industry and possibly the national level, and thus increase national welfare in the host country (MacDougall, 1960).
There is at least one important difference between pecuniary and technological spillovers (Holcombe & Sobel, 2001). Pecuniary spillovers reflect the workings of the market system. As there are both winners and losers from changes in market prices, the gains and losses cancel one another, and public policy intervention is not required to correct the externality. On the other hand, technological spillovers reflect differences between social and private impacts that are not reflected in market prices and can therefore generate inefficiencies (too much or too little being produced). As a result, public policy intervention may be needed for market prices to reflect social costs and benefits.
There is a second difference between the two types of spillovers that comes into play with MNEs and FDI. The argument that pecuniary spillovers can be ignored because the winners and losers cancel one another assumes winners and losers have the same weight in national welfare calculations. However, where one group consists of foreign owners, the welfare impact of pecuniary spillovers on income earned by residents (measured by Gross National Product (GNP)) differs from the impact on income earned within the borders of a country (measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP)). In this case, the host government might care about the welfare impacts of pecuniary spillovers as they can affect GNP, even if GDP is unchanged (MacDougall, 1960). Thus, it is rational for host country governments to encourage backward and forward linkages, even if the impacts are wholly pecuniary, because such linkages can add to national welfare as measured by GNP.
As vertical linkages can generate both pecuniary and technological spillovers, it is often difficult to disentangle linkages from spillovers, and scholars may confuse or equate the two. Moreover, because of the difficulty of sorting out pecuniary from technological spillovers, researchers have tended to separate spillovers into categories that are more easily captured empirically.
Interindustry spillovers from FDI are pecuniary and technological spillovers generated from vertical linkages between firms in different industries. In practice, scholars estimating interindustry spillovers tend to focus on the technological spillovers generated by buyer-supplier linkages, and pecuniary spillovers are either ignored or included in the productivity estimates.
Lastly, agglomeration spillovers refer to the pecuniary and technological spillovers that arise from clusters and networks; these impacts can be intraindustry or interindustry (Dunning & Lundan, 2008). Again, the empirical focus has been on technological spillovers. A typical example of agglomeration spillovers is knowledge spillovers generated by geographically clustered high-tech firms in Silicon Valley (Almeida & Kogut, 1999).
The international Editorial Board includes prominent researchers and emerging leaders from all areas of environmental science. The Editor-in-Chief provides leadership and management of the Editorial Board and influences the strategy of the Journal, in co-operation with the Publisher. The Editorial Board is comprised of two sections; with the Executive Editorial Board focused on article commissioning, and the Editorial Board focused on peer reviewing activities.
Joeri Rogelj Imperial College London, UK & International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria Connecting insights from geoscience to climate policy. Integrated assessment modelling, scenario analysis, carbon budgets, uncertainty analysis, trade-offs and synergies between air-pollution, climate and development policies
Chuixiang Yi Queens College, City University of New York, USATree mortality, forest resilience and tipping points, ecosystem responses to extreme weather and climate, biosphere-atmosphere interactions, eddy flux measurements and modelling from globally synthetic data analysis to site-specific analysis
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With her letter from the editor in the February issue, our Editor in Chief explains why for the first time ever there is no image on the cover of ESSENCE, and why we invited activists, authors, thought leaders and cultural figures to reflect on the meaning of this moment in our society, and what we must do next.
This section of the Transactions offers a vehicle that speeds publication of new results, discoveries, and developments. The section affords authors the opportunity to publish contributions within a few months of submission to ensure rapid dissemination of ideas and timely archiving of developments in our rapidly changing field. Original and significant contributions in applications, case studies, and research in all fields of power engineering are invited. Of specific interest are contributions defining emerging problems and special needs in specific areas. Authors are encouraged to submit contributions to the Letters Section offering new insight to established techniques, concepts, and methodologies in electric power engineering. Such contributions are distinctly different from discussions of papers recently published in the Transactions, in that the former seek to broaden the scope, and point to potential enhancements to existing and established technologies.
"You are born with beauty, but there are some things you can only gain through living: intelligence, poise, determination." This line is from the first editor's letter I ever wrote. I was a high school senior and had created a mini-magazine called ONYX, for Black teens. (I'd like to take a moment to acknowledge that I knew nothing about life at the age of 18, but it all sounded very grown-up at the time.) Looking at that publication and now at this one, I want a lot of the same things for Allure that I wanted for ONYX.
I read Testify before joining the staff, and I particularly liked the explanation of how and why The Marshall Project did its reporting. In addition to talking with many people about their experiences, journalists examined thousands of records from the court docket to put together a database to be shared with the public: 2b1af7f3a8