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From self-concept, dissonance and mindset to values, orientation and perceived control, these theories explain how our preference toward certain mental constructs can increase or impair our ability to take goal-directed action.
Theories of motivation are also grouped by the field of human endeavor they apply to. Several theories relate to motivating employees where incentives and needs take a central stage as well as theories used in sports and performance psychology where affect is considered a more prominent driver of human behavior. Some of these theories are also applied to education and learning.
Douglas McGregor proposed two theories, Theory X and Theory Y, to explain employee motivation and its implications for management. He divided employees into Theory X employees who avoid work and dislike responsibility and Theory Y employees who enjoy work and exert effort when they have control in the workplace.
There are also several theories on motivation that are used in sports and performance psychology. The core concept in understanding motivation from the performance perspective is how physiological and psychological arousal accompanies behavior.
This oversimplification is part of the reason why more nuanced and complex cognitive theories have largely replaced the theory. The cusp catastrophe model in sports psychology, arousal-biased competition theory, processing efficiency theory, and attentional control theory are more concerned with the cognitive aspects of arousal and how this affects behavioral efficiency.
Yes. Precisely that.I am looking for theories that I am adapt to do an intervention , implementation and evaluation of employee motivation in an organization. And how exactly these theories are implemented.
Every business leader wants its employees to shine. The financial success and reputation of a company depends on all staff doing their best at work. The million-dollar question is how do employers ensure employees perform at the optimum level? These employee engagement models and theories outline some of the different ways in which employers can boost performance.
Academics have been researching employee engagement for decades, and there are many employee engagement theories and models that provide a framework for success. Each model has a slightly different approach.
Such policies aim to improve the quality of life at work for an employee, covering everything from general wellbeing to career opportunities. Employee engagement models outline the strategy required to maximise the employee experience, ensure job satisfaction, and build the kind of positive work culture where employees can thrive.
Employee engagement models and theories are helpful for establishing a strategy. Adopting a model that has already been proven is more likely to bring about significant and lasting change and will save a lot of time.
There are numerous employee engagement theories and models and hundreds of successfully proven initiatives. The nuances of a business will determine which model is most suitable. For example, a large manufacturing business may require a different model and employee engagement strategy than say a small FinTech start-up.
HRM models often combine principles of soft and hard HRM, but with more emphasis put on one of these two approaches. Here are the five most significant HRM models every HR practitioner should know of.
One of the most significant and most influential models of HRM, the Harvard model, was initially developed by several experts lead by Michael Beer in 1984 at Harvard University. The Harvard Model is operating with five significant components: situational factors, stakeholder interests, HRM policies, HRM outcomes, and long-term consequences the organisation is set out to accomplish.
In addition to the concepts just summarized, the literature provides models and frameworks for understanding health promotion and health research that can be helpful in the practice of community engagement. We cover a number of those here.
These refined dispersion models are listed in the Guideline on Air Quality Models - Appendix W (PDF)(54 pp, 761 K, 01-17-2017) and are required to be used for State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions for existing sources and for New Source Review (NSR) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) programs. The models in this section include the following:AERMOD Modeling System - A steady-state plume model that incorporates air dispersion based on planetary boundary layer turbulence structure and scaling concepts, including treatment of both surface and elevated sources, and both simple and complex terrain.
The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model Improvement Committee (AERMIC) was formed to introduce state-of-the-art modeling concepts into the EPA's air quality models. Through AERMIC, a modeling system, AERMOD, was introduced that incorporated air dispersion based on planetary boundary layer turbulence structure and scaling concepts, including treatment of both surface and elevated sources, and both simple and complex terrain. As of December 9, 2006, AERMOD is fully promulgated as a replacement to ISC3, in accordance with Appendix W (PDF)(54 pp, 761 K, 01-17-2017).
Our main aims with HR have been to implement a plausible model of theory formation and to experiment with various parameters in order to improve the quality of the theories it produces. However, we have also always had in mind the possibility of using HR for discovery tasks in mathematics by inventing new concepts and finding new conjectures. Our methodology has been to design and implement a model of theory formation before attempting any applications. Therefore, there has been less time to apply HR to discovery tasks and this has been a secondary aim of the project.
We've presented the stakeholder theory as one of a number of different strategic models that you can apply to help your organization succeed. You may even have found your way to this post from our popular 5 of the Best Strategy Frameworks post.
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Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. The most recent edition of The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy lists over 300 different approaches to counseling practice.1 So how do counselors come to know what approach is the right one for them? To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence.
Such differences are hard to control for experimentally, thus making it almost impossible to prove that one approach to counseling is the absolute best way. Without such proof, it becomes the responsibility of counselors to do all they can to see that the treatment model(s) they apply are the best ones to address each client's needs. That responsibility starts with becoming familiar with the models that have shown to be most beneficial in actual practice.
Fortunately, almost all of the many individual theoretical models of counseling fall into one or more of six major theoretical categories: humanistic, cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, constructionist and systemic.
Humanistic: Humanistic counseling theories hold that people have within themselves all the resources they need to live healthy and functional lives, and that problems occur as a result of restricted or unavailable problem-solving resources. Humanistic counselors see their role not as one of directing clients in how to address their problems but, rather, as one of helping clients to discover and access within themselves the restricted resources they need to solve problems on their own. Some currently preferred humanistic counseling therapies include person-centered, existential, emotion-focused, Gestalt and positive psychology.
Cognitive: Cognitive counseling theories hold that people experience psychological and emotional difficulties when their thinking is out of sync with reality. When this distorted or "faulty" thinking is applied to problem-solving, the result understandably leads to faulty solutions. Cognitive counselors work to challenge their clients' faulty thinking patterns so clients are able to derive solutions that accurately address the problems they are experiencing. Currently preferred cognitive-theory-based therapies include cognitive behavior therapy, reality therapy, motivational interviewing, and acceptance and commitment therapy.
Behavioral: Behavioral counseling theories hold that people engage in problematic thinking and behavior when their environment supports it. When an environment reinforces or encourages these problems, they will continue to occur. Behavioral counselors work to help clients identify the reinforcements that are supporting problematic patterns of thinking and acting and replace them with alternative reinforcements for more desirable patterns. Currently preferred therapies based in behavior theory include behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, multimodal therapy and conjoint sex therapy.
Psychoanalytic: Psychoanalytic counseling theories hold that psychological problems result from the present-day influence of unconscious psychological drives or motivations stemming from past relationships and experiences. Dysfunctional thought and behavior patterns from the past have become unconscious "working models" that guide clients toward continued dysfunctional thought and behavior in their present lives. Psychoanalytic counselors strive to help their clients become aware of these unconscious working models so that their negative influence can be understood and addressed. Some currently preferred therapies grounded in psychoanalytic theory include psychoanalysis, attachment therapy, object relations therapy and Adlerian therapy. 2b1af7f3a8