When you feel tired, it can be easy to reach for a sweet, sugar-filled snack. However, although sugar can give you a short-term energy boost, it also wears off very quickly and can leave you feeling more tired than before.
As we have noted in our discussions of the self-concept, our sense of self is partly determined by our cognition. However, our view of ourselves is also the product of our affect, in other words how we feel about ourselves. Just as we explored in Chapter 2, cognition and affect are inextricably linked. For example, self-discrepancy theory highlights how we feel distress when we perceive a gap between our actual and ideal selves. We will now examine this feeling self, starting with perhaps its most heavily researched aspect, self-esteem.
Self-esteem refers to the positive (high self-esteem) or negative (low self-esteem) feelings that we have about ourselves. We experience the positive feelings of high self-esteem when we believe that we are good and worthy and that others view us positively. We experience the negative feelings of low self-esteem when we believe that we are inadequate and less worthy than others.
A number of studies have since explored cross-cultural differences in implicit self-esteem and have not found the same differences observed on explicit measures like the Rosenberg scale (Yamaguchi et al., 2007). Does this mean that we can conclude that the lower scores on self-report measures observed in members of collectivistic cultures are more apparent than real? Maybe not just yet, especially given that the correlations between explicit and implicit measures of self-esteem are often quite small (Heine, Lehman, Markus, & Kitayama, 1999). Nevertheless, values such as modesty may be less prioritized in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic ones, which may in turn reflect differences in reported self-esteem levels. Indeed, Cai and colleagues (2007) found that differences in explicit self-esteem between Chinese and American participants were explained by cultural differences in modesty.
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It is a curious sensation: the sort of pain that goes mercifully beyond our powers of feeling. When your heart is broken, your boats are burned: nothing matters any more. It is the end of happiness and the beginning of peace.
We experience ourselves, our thoughts and feelings, as something separate from the rest. A kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us.
In 2006 Document Records began a collaboration with Lawrence Tedder of the American Sound Archives to produce the Edison Collection CDs of American popular music as Document's 1100 series. The documentation on the Archives website (and copied in several of the Document booklets) state that sources are drawn from tapes of Edison masters and unissued takes made by Merrrit Malvern with assistance from Leah Stenzel-Burt at the Edison National Historical Site in West Orange, NJ in 1976. The digital remastering by Tedder is uniformly excellent for the first 6 issues under review, with very little or no surface noise. Some of the late 1928 and 1929 selections come from lateral-cut pressings. Jazz, blues, and country collectors accustomed to 3-minute sides from other labels will be delighted to see that Edison releases lasted from 3-1/2 to 4-1/2 minutes. In the discographical data on each booklet, Document gives the recording dates for all, the label serial number for each Edison-issued selection, and matrix numbers with take suffixes only for the previously unreleased material, noting them with "NR." As supplements to the CD series, Tedder prepared several pod casts that are accessible through the Document website (see -records.com/show_news.asp?articleID=366); each will be noted where appropriate in this review. Collectors of vintage American popular music, especially of prewar city blues and southern country music, will especially be glad to have material that up until now has seldom if ever been reissued, especially in good sound.
Adrian is a writer, a Texan and a divinity student at Vanderbilt University. They write about bisexuality, gender, religion, politics, music and a whole lot of feelings at Autostraddle and wherever fine words are sold. They have a dog named after Alison Bechdel. Follow Adrian on Twitter @adrianwhitetx. 2b1af7f3a8